The purpose of this study is to build upon the information obtained in the original Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1) and ADNI-GO (Grand Opportunity; a study funded through an NIH grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act), to examine how brain imaging technology can be used with other tests to measure the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). ADNI2 seeks to inform the neuroscience of AD. This information will aid in the early detection of AD, and in measuring the effectiveness of treatments in future clinical trials.
The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) began in October 2004 as a landmark study with a public-private partnership that gathered and analyzed thousands of brain scans, genetic profiles and biomarkers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although the original goal was to define biomarkers for use in clinical trials to determine the best way to measure treatment effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the goal has been expanded to using biomarkers to identify AD at a pre-dementia stage. ADNI1 involves scientists at 59 research centers, 54 in the U.S. and five in Canada. Originally 800 participants were enrolled. This group was comprised of 200 participants with AD, 400 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 200 with normal cognition. In ADNI-GO, an estimated 200 participants with early amnestic MCI (EMCI) were enrolled to understand and characterize the mildest symptomatic phase of AD. An additional 650 participants will be enrolled under ADNI2.
Some of the leading-edge technologies under study are brain-imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET), including FDG-PET (which measures glucose metabolism in the brain); PET using a radioactive compound (Florbetapir F 18) that measures brain beta-amyloid; and structural MRI. Brain scans are showing scientists how the brain's structure and function change as AD starts and progresses. Biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid are revealing other changes that could identify which patients with MCI will develop Alzheimer's. Scientists are looking at levels of beta-amyloid and tau in cerebrospinal fluid. (Abnormal amounts of the amyloid and tau proteins in the brain are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.)
ADNI2 extends the work of ADNI1 and ADNI GO to understand the progression of AD. The overall goal is to determine the relationships among the clinical, cognitive, imaging, genetic and biochemical biomarker characteristics of the entire spectrum of AD, as the pathology evolves from normal aging through very mild symptoms, to MCI, to dementia.
The overall impact of this study will be increased knowledge concerning the sequence and timing of events leading to MCI and AD, development of better clinical and imaging/fluid biomarker methods for early detection and for monitoring the progression of these conditions, and facilitation of clinical trials to slow disease progression, ultimately contributing to the prevention of AD.
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Significant Memory Concern (SMC) Early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI) Late Mild Cognitive Impairment (LMCI) amyloid plaques neuroimaging biomarkers cognition disorder early detection Amnestic MCI pre-dementia dementia Alzheimer's disease tau
Open to people ages 55–90
Participants will be classified as either normal controls, SMC, EMCI, LMCI or AD participants. General Inclusion Criteria will apply to all groups, with specific criteria for each group as described below:
General (applies to each category):
Specific Inclusion Criteria for normal controls:
Specific Inclusion Criteria for SMC participants:
Specific Inclusion Criteria for EMCI and LMCI participants:
Specific Inclusion Criteria for AD participants:
Specific Inclusion Criteria for follow-up participants from ADNI1 and ADNI GO:
General (applies to each category):
Specific Exclusion Criteria for normal controls and SMC participants:
Specific Exclusion Criteria for EMCI and LMCI participants:
Specific Exclusion Criteria for AD participants:
Specific Exclusion Criteria for follow-up participants from ADNI1 and ADNI GO:
Florbetapir F 18 if the following is true: Current or recent participation in any procedures involving radioactive agents such that the total radiation dose exposure to the participant in any given year would exceed the limits of annual and total dose commitment set forth in the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21 Section 361.1.
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