The main objectives of this study are to test the hypotheses that: 1) consumption of beverages sweetened with sucrose will increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease to a greater extent than a naturally-sweetened fruit juice such as orange juice, and 2) chronic psychological stress may augment the adverse metabolic effects of sugar intake. The study intervention consists of 2-week's consumption of 25% of energy as sugar provided either as a sucrose-sweetened beverage or naturally-sweetened orange juice.
Synergistic Effects of Stress and Sugar Feeding on Metabolism
Self report of stable body weight during the past six months
High stress participants: Perceived Stress Scores (PSS) ≥ 24, and the presence of a predefined chronically stressful event as assessed by the Telephone screening questions. (IDS scores are not an inclusion criteria in this group, merely a rule-out for the low stress participants).
Low stress participants: PSS scores ≤ 8, Inventory for Depressive Symptom (IDS)scores ≤ 14, and the absence of any predefined chronically stressful events as assessed by the telephone screening questions.
You CAN'T join if...
Evidence of liver disorder
Evidence of kidney disorder
Evidence of thyroid disorder
Systolic blood pressure consistently over 140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure over 90mmHg
Hemoglobin < 8.5 g/dl
pregnant or lactating women
Current, prior (within 12 months), or anticipated use of any hypolipidemic or anti-diabetic agents
Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and anti-hypertensive medications
Any other condition that, in the opinion of the investigators, would put subject at risk