VA Augmentation and Switching Treatments for Improving Depression Outcomes
a study on Depression
The overall purpose is to determine research based 'next-steps' for outpatients with major depressive disorder who have not had satisfactory outcomes to standard 'first-step' treatments. The primary objective is to compare the acute (up to 12 weeks) treatment effectiveness of augmenting an antidepressant with aripiprazole or with bupropion-SR vs. switching treatment to bupropion-SR monotherapy on symptom remission in Veterans with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who have not achieved optimal response after an adequate trial on antidepressant (SSRI or SNRI or mirtazapine) monotherapy. The secondary objectives are to compare the acute (up to 12 weeks) and long term (up to 36 weeks) efficacy, safety, effects on functioning, suicidality, quality of life, anxiety and other associated symptoms, costs and cost-effectiveness of each of the three treatments.
CSP #576 - VA Augmentation and Switching Treatments for Improving Depression Outcomes (VAST-D)
The overall aim of VAST-D is to enhance treatment outcomes for representative outpatients diagnosed with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) and treated in primary or psychiatric VA care settings. In particular, VAST-D is designed to determine the comparative effectiveness of different treatment options for participants with MDD who fail to have a satisfactory outcome to treatment with their initial antidepressants.
These options may be conceptualized as representing two overall treatment strategies: 1) Medication Switch - switching from the initial antidepressant to another antidepressant medication, specifically bupropion-SR and 2) Medication Augmentation - augmenting the initial antidepressant with a second antidepressant, specifically bupropion-SR or a second generation antipsychotic, specifically aripiprazole. VAST-D's primary goal is to determine which of these 3 treatment strategies is most likely to lead to remission. Other key objectives include comparisons of response, time to remission, time to response, relapse, anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation and behaviors, side effects, tolerability, quality of life, health related costs and satisfaction with participation in the study.
VAST-D will enroll 1518 total patients of both genders and all ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. All patients will meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for nonpsychotic MDD. The diagnostic criteria for eligibility will be established by clinical interview supplemented with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Final determination for eligibility will be made by the study clinician. Only participants with a suboptimal outcome to a well documented, adequately delivered (dose and duration), trial with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) or mirtazapine will be eligible for the study. Failure to achieve an adequate outcome will be ascertained by a QIDS-C16 >= 16 (considered severe depression) after at least 6 weeks of treatment or >= 11 (considered moderately severe depression) after at least 8 weeks of treatment. Otherwise, the inclusion criteria are broad and the exclusion criteria are few; participants with most comorbid general medical or psychiatric disorders are generally included to provide a broadly representative sample.
Participants will be randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to switch to bupropion-SR alone (n=506), current antidepressant plus bupropion-SR (n=506), or current antidepressant plus aripiprazole (n=506). Treatment will be guided by clinician-rated symptom measures (the PHQ-9) and global side effects measures (the Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating or FIBSER) obtained at each treatment visit. Acute treatment visits will occur at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 to ensure delivery of appropriate and yet vigorous and tolerable pharmacotherapy. Participants who tolerate the acute treatment and achieve adequate response at 12 weeks will enter the 24-week Continuation Treatment phase, during which the initial treatment will continue and visits will occur every four weeks subsequently until patients have been followed for 36 weeks post-randomization. The QIDS-C16 will be administered at baseline and at each follow-up visit by an independent evaluator (who will be blinded to treatment assignment) to measure symptoms of depression for the study outcomes of remission, response and relapse. Neither the participant nor the treating clinician will be blinded to treatment.
Primary hypothesis 1.a: Remission rate from major depressive disorder will be higher in patients whose treatment is augmented with bupropion-SR (antidepressant + bupropion-SR) compared to those switched to bupropion-SR monotherapy.
Primary Hypothesis 1.b: Remission rate from major depressive disorder will be higher in patients whose treatment is augmented with aripiprazole (antidepressant + aripiprazole) compared to those switched to bupropion-SR monotherapy.
Secondary Hypothesis 2.a: Remission rate will be greater in patients whose treatment is augmented with bupropion-SR (antidepressant + bupropion-SR) than in those augmented with aripiprazole (antidepressant + aripiprazole).
Secondary Hypothesis 2.b: Relapse rate (within 36 weeks of the initiation of treatment) will be lower in patients whose antidepressant is augmented with bupropion-SR (antidepressant + bupropion-SR) than in those whose antidepressant is switched to bupropion-SR monotherapy.
Secondary Hypothesis 2.c: Relapse rate (within 36 weeks of the initiation of treatment) will be lower in patients whose treatment is augmented with aripiprazole (antidepressant + aripiprazole) vs. those switched to bupropion-SR monotherapy.
Secondary Hypothesis 2.d: Relapse rate (within 36 weeks of the initiation of treatment) will be lower in patients whose treatment is augmented with bupropion-SR (antidepressant + bupropion-SR) than in patients whose treatment was augmented with aripiprazole (antidepressant + aripiprazole).
Secondary Hypothesis 2.e: The proportion of patients who develop akathisia, other akathisia-like side effects (e.g., tremor, irritability, motor restlessness) and extrapyramidal side effects will be greater in the patients whose antidepressant treatment is augmented with aripiprazole (antidepressant + aripiprazole) compared to patients whose treatment is augmented with bupropion-SR (antidepressant + bupropion-SR), or switched to bupropion-SR monotherapy.
Secondary Hypothesis 2.f: The relative costs (direct and indirect) of augmenting an antidepressant with aripiprazole (antidepressant + aripiprazole) will be greater than the costs of antidepressant augmentation with bupropion-SR (antidepressant + bupropion-SR), and the costs of antidepressant augmentation with bupropion-SR (antidepressant + bupropion-SR) will be greater than the costs of switching to bupropion-SR monotherapy, and augmentation and monotherapy with bupropion-SR will be more cost-effective than aripiprazole augmentation.
Major Depressive Disorder Mood Disorder Depression Depressive Disorder Depressive Disorder, Major Bupropion Aripiprazole Remission Relapse Cost-Effectiveness Atypical Antipsychotic Antidepressant Augmentation Veterans Mental Health Antidepressive Agents
You can join if…
Open to people ages 18 years and up
- DSM-IV diagnosis of single or recurrent, non-psychotic, major depressive disorder
- Currently taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) or mirtazapine for major depressive disorder
- Need for "next-step" treatment based on documented suboptimal outcome from current antidepressant treatment for major depressive episode (at least 6 weeks treatment with a QIDS-C16 >= 16 or at least 8 weeks with a QIDS-C16 >= 11; and at least 3 weeks at a stable "optimal" dose
- Age: 18 years of age or older
You CAN'T join if...
- Prior inadequate response after an adequate treatment trial or clear cut intolerance to either of the study medications (aripiprazole or bupropion)
- Current treatment with bupropion, aripiprazole or any other antipsychotic agent
- Lifetime history of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychosis not otherwise specified
- Current diagnosis of Dementia
- Current diagnosis of an eating disorder or a seizure disorder
- High suicide risk currently requiring acute intervention (other than outpatient treatment of depression)
- Unstable, serious medical condition or one requiring acute medical treatment, or anticipation of hospitalization for extended care
- Requiring immediate hospitalization for psychiatric disorders
- Physiologic substance dependence requiring detoxification (excluding nicotine) in the past 30 days (substance abuse is not an exclusion criteria)
- Taking any concomitant medication that contraindicates any of treatment options or augmenting agents known to have an antidepressant effect
- Concurrent or recent participation (within the last 30 days) in another conflicting clinical trial with a mental health, investigational drug, or medical device intervention
- Female - pregnant or lactating or planning to become pregnant
- Patient was not able or willing to provide informed consent; or changed mind about participating prior to randomization
- Patient was not referred to the study
- San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA
San Francisco, California, 94121, United States
- VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA
Palo Alto, California, 94304-1290, United States
- VA Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA
Long Beach, California, 90822, United States
- VA Loma Linda Healthcare System, Loma Linda, CA
Loma Linda, California, 92357, United States
- in progress, not accepting new patients
- Start Date
- Completion Date
- VA Office of Research and Development
- Phase 3
- Study Type
- Last Updated
- April 2016