for people ages up to 18 years (full criteria)
at Fresno, California and other locations
study started
estimated completion



Intravenous fluids (IVF) are used in hospitalized patients to replenish the fluid and electrolyte losses of patients who cannot take adequate hydration by mouth or through their gut. Inappropriate use of IVF may cause serious problems, including abnormalities in blood electrolytes such as sodium, which can lead to serious but rare neurologic harm; pain and discomfort from multiple IV insertions and subsequent complications (e.g., IV infiltration); and inadequate monitoring for adverse effects. Investigators currently don't know what the most commonly used IVF in hospitalized pediatric patients are, and there are no national benchmark data for IVF use. The American Academy of Pediatrics published a Guideline on maintenance IVF in November 2018, which contains one major recommendation: to use isotonic (having a similar electrolyte concentration to blood plasma) maintenance IVF in medical and surgical patients 28 days to 18 years old without pre-existing serious illnesses. This project aims to better describe and standardize the use of IVF in inpatient pediatric settings across the U.S. and evaluate the impact of an intervention bundle on maintenance IVF use. This project aims to improve health care value by reducing the number of routine laboratory draws. In Quality Improvement research, there are three different types of measures - outcome measures, process measures and balancing measures. In this project, the following will be tested as process measures: 1. By May 2020, the proportion of daily weight measurements will increase by 10% from baseline for patients on maintenance IVF. 2. By May 2020, participants will attend an average of ≥75% of their scheduled sessions with project QI coaches. This will be measured by tracking attendance during coaching phone calls. The following will be tested as balancing measures: 1. There will be no increase in the number of floor-to-PICU transfers during hospitalization from baseline. 2. There will be no increase in the number of serum sodium lab results obtained from baseline. 3. There will be no increase in adverse events prompting a change in clinical management from baseline: hypertension or edema requiring a diuretic, hypertension requiring anti-hypertensive medication, and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT)/dialysis.

Official Title

Standardization of Fluids in Inpatient Settings


Study Design

All sites will participate in a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial, with 80-120 sites total. This design is helpful when simultaneous implementation of an intervention is not feasible or practical, and allows for each site to collect baseline data for comparison with post-intervention data. There will be 3 groups (or clusters) of approximately 30-40 sites each, with randomization to intervention occurring at 2 month intervals. Randomization will be stratified by: geographic region, size and baseline rate of IVF use.


Intravenous Fluids Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance ADH Inappropriate Inappropriate ADH Syndrome Education, clinical decision support tools


You can join if…

Open to people ages up to 18 years

  • Age ≥28 days and ≤18 years old at the time of admission
  • Received maintenance IVF (rate greater than 10 ml/h) on hospital day #2 at 12:01 am

You CAN'T join if...

  • ICU (PICU, NICU, CICU, etc.) patients
  • Patients who have never gone home from the hospital
  • Patients with active adrenal, cardiac, hepatic, neurosurgical, chronic renal, heme/onc, biochemical genetic/metabolic illnesses (As evidenced by: (1) listing of a condition in these categories in past medical history; and/or (2) active medication related to one of these conditions)

  • Patients with diabetes insipidus, DKA, severe burns
  • Patients on a psychiatric hold/primary behavioral health reason for admission with no needed medical management
  • Patients with voluminous watery diarrhea > 7 days


  • Community Regional Medical Center
    Fresno California 93721 United States
  • UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital
    San Francisco California 94158 United States


in progress, not accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
Seattle Children's Hospital
Study Type
Last Updated