for people ages up to 50 years (full criteria)
at San Francisco, California and other locations
study started
completion around
Principal Investigator
by Robert E. Goldsby
Headshot of Robert E. Goldsby
Robert E. Goldsby



This phase III trial compares the effect of open thoracic surgery (thoracotomy) to thoracoscopic surgery (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS) in treating patients with osteosarcoma that has spread to the lung (pulmonary metastases). Open thoracic surgery is a type of surgery done through a single larger incision (like a large cut) that goes between the ribs, opens up the chest, and removes the cancer. Thoracoscopy is a type of chest surgery where the doctor makes several small incisions and uses a small camera to help with removing the cancer. This trial is being done evaluate the two different surgery methods for patients with osteosarcoma that has spread to the lung to find out which is better.

Official Title

A Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Open vs Thoracoscopic Management of Pulmonary Metastases in Patients With Osteosarcoma



  1. To determine if open surgical resection is superior to thoracoscopic resection for thoracic event-free survival (tEFS) in patients with resectable oligometastatic pulmonary osteosarcoma.


  1. To determine if open surgical resection is superior to thoracoscopy for event free survival (EFS) in patients with resectable oligometastatic pulmonary osteosarcoma.

II. To determine if open surgical resection is superior to thoracoscopy for overall survival (OS) in patients with resectable oligometastatic pulmonary osteosarcoma.

III. To determine if thoracoscopy is superior to open surgical resection for post-operative pain interference in patients with resectable oligometastatic pulmonary osteosarcoma.


  1. To compare 30-day rates of perioperative surgical complications for both open surgical resection and thoracoscopy.

II. To compare patterns of recurrence (ipsilateral and/or contralateral) in patients who undergo open or thoracoscopic resection for unilateral or bilateral pulmonary metastases.

III. To describe the use of localization techniques and its relationship with both surgical approach and pathologic findings.

IV. To assess the prognostic significance of a decision to change the post-operative treatment plan.

  1. To describe the relationship between the preoperative chest computed tomography (CT) imaging, intraoperative surgical findings, and pathologic results, comparing radiological features to the presence of viable tumor.

VI. To prospectively compare between treatment arms the relationship between surgical approach and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), specifically patient functional impairment of the upper extremities, pain intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

VII. To generate well-characterized, clinically-annotated, distributable models of metastatic osteosarcoma.

VIII. To collect and bank pulmonary metastatic lesions (including frozen tissues and paired metastatic lesions coming from the same patient) to facilitate study of metastatic disease and serial blood samples for future tumor profiling, germline and circulating tumor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) studies.

OUTLINE: Patients are randomized into 1 of 2 arms.

ARM A: Patients undergo open thoracic surgery (thoracotomy).

ARM B: Patients undergo thoracoscopy (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS).

All patients undergo computed tomography (CT) throughout the trial. Patients may also undergo collection of tissue on study and blood throughout the trial.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 7-14 days, 4-6 weeks, and 3 months post-surgery and then every 3 months for up to 2 years.


Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Lung, Metastatic Osteosarcoma, Osteosarcoma, Neoplasms, Biospecimen Collection, Computed Tomography, Thoracoscopy, Thoracotomy


You can join if…

Open to people ages up to 50 years

  • Patients must be < 50 years at the time of enrollment.
  • Patients must have =< 4 nodules per lung consistent with or suspicious for metastases, with at least one of which being >= 3 mm and all of which must be =< 3 cm size.
    • Note: Patient must have eligibility confirmed by rapid central imaging review.
  • Lung nodules must be considered resectable by either open thoracotomy or thoracoscopic surgery. Determination of resectability is made by the institutional surgeon.
  • Patients must have a histological diagnosis of osteosarcoma.
  • Patients must have evidence of metastatic lung disease at the time of initial diagnosis, or at time of 1st recurrence following completion of therapy for initially localized disease.
  • Patients with newly diagnosed disease must have completed successful gross tumor resection for their primary tumor or surgical local control of primary tumor must be planned to be performed simultaneously with thoracic surgery.
  • Newly diagnosed patients must be receiving systemic therapy considered by the treating physician as at least equivalent to methotrexate, doxorubicin and cisplatin (MAP) at the time of enrollment on this study.
  • Patients at time of 1st recurrence must have previously completed initial systemic therapy for their primary tumor, considered by the treating physician as at least equivalent to MAP.

You CAN'T join if...

  • Patients with unresectable primary tumor.
  • Patients with pulmonary metastatic lesions that would require anatomic resection (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) or lesions that are defined as "central" (i.e., central lesion involves or is proximal to segmental bronchi and peripheral is lesion distal to segmental bronchi).
  • Patients with pleural or mediastinal based metastatic lesions, or with pleural effusion.
  • Patients with disease progression at either the primary or pulmonary metastatic site while on initial therapy. Note: Once the patient has been enrolled on the study, additional computed tomography (CT) scans are not anticipated prior to thoracic surgery. Note: Some variation in nodule size measurements over the course of pre-operative therapy is anticipated and does not qualify for exclusion unless deemed true disease progression by the primary treatment team.
  • Patients with evidence of extrapulmonary metastatic disease.
  • Patients who received therapeutic pulmonary surgery for lung metastasis prior to enrollment.
  • All patients and/or their parents or legal guardians must sign a written informed consent.
  • All institutional, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and National Cancer Institute (NCI) requirements for human studies must be met.


  • UCSF Medical Center-Mission Bay accepting new patients
    San Francisco California 94158 United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Oakland accepting new patients
    Oakland California 94611 United States
  • Valley Children's Hospital accepting new patients
    Madera California 93636 United States
  • Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford University accepting new patients
    Palo Alto California 94304 United States

Lead Scientist at UCSF

  • Robert E. Goldsby
    Professor, Pediatrics, School of Medicine. Authored (or co-authored) 114 research publications


accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
Children's Oncology Group
Phase 3 research study
Study Type
Expecting 250 study participants
Last Updated