This phase III trial studies how well combination chemotherapy and surgery work in treating young patients with Wilms tumor. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more tumor cells. Giving combination chemotherapy before surgery may make the tumor smaller and reduce the amount of normal tissue that needs to be removed. Giving it after surgery may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery.
Treatment for Patients With Bilateral, Multicentric, or Bilaterally-Predisposed Unilateral Wilms Tumor
- To improve 4-year event-free survival (EFS) to 73% for young patients with bilateral Wilms tumor (BWT).
II. To prevent complete removal of at least one kidney in 50% of patients with BWT by using prenephrectomy 3-drug chemotherapy induction with vincristine (vincristine sulfate), dactinomycin, and doxorubicin (doxorubicin hydrochloride).
III. To evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in preserving renal units in children with diffuse hyperplastic perilobar nephroblastomatosis (DHPLN) and preventing Wilms tumor development.
IV. To facilitate partial nephrectomy in lieu of nephrectomy in 25% of children with unilateral tumors and aniridia, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), hemihypertrophy or other overgrowth syndromes, by using prenephrectomy 2-drug chemotherapy induction with vincristine and dactinomycin.
- To have 75% of patients with BWT undergo definitive surgical treatment by 12 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy.
OUTLINE: Patients are assigned to 1 of 3 arms.
ARM 1 (Bilateral Wilms Tumors): Patients start with three drug chemotherapy (Regimen VAD; vincristine, dactinomycin and doxorubicin) and are evaluated and six and 12 weeks for feasibility of undergoing a partial nephrectomy/renal sparing surgery. At week 12 definitive surgery takes place followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy based on histology and stage. Treatment continues for 25 or 31 weeks depending on histology. Patients are followed for up to 10 years following end of therapy.
ARM 2 (Unilateral High Risk tumors bilaterally predisposed): Patients start with either 2 drug or three drug chemotherapy (Regimen VA, VAD) and are evaluated a 6 and 12 weeks for feasibility of undergoing a partial nephrectomy. At week 12 definitive surgery takes place followed by chemotherapy.
ARM 3 (DHPLN): Patients with this rare disease are diagnosed based on cross-sectional imaging characteristics and undergo 2 drug chemotherapy (Regimen;VA). Patients are reassessed at 6 weeks and 12 weeks. If disease has responded or stayed stable chemotherapy is completed for 19 weeks (Regimen EE4A). If disease has progress a biopsy is performed to assess histology and adjust therapy based on the biopsy. This therapy may include, nephrectomy, chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
VAD REGIMEN: Patients receive vincristine sulfate intravenously (IV) over 1 minute on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36 (weeks 1-6) and dactinomycin IV and doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 15-120 minutes on days 1 and 22 (weeks 1 and 4).
EE4A REGIMEN: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36 (weeks 1-6) and dactinomycin IV over 1-5 minutes on days 1 and 22 (weeks 1 and 4).
After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up periodically for 10 years.