for people ages 18 years and up (full criteria)
at San Francisco, California and other locations
study started
completion around
Principal Investigator
by Sarah Doernberg, MD
Headshot of Sarah Doernberg
Sarah Doernberg



The Gram-negative bloodstream infection Oral Antibiotic Therapy trial (The GOAT Trial) is a multi-center, randomized clinical trial that hypothesizes that early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for the treatment of Gram-Negative BloodStream Infection (GN-BSI) is as effective but safer than remaining on intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for the duration of treatment.


This is an open-label, pragmatic, randomized trial of approximately 1,204 adult patients hospitalized across 9 United States hospitals with the overarching goal of determining whether the optimal approach for the management of GN-BSI is (1) IV antibiotics for the duration of treatment or (2) initial IV antibiotics followed by early transition to oral antibiotics for the duration of treatment. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to remain on IV antibiotics or transition to oral antibiotics as soon as possible after blood culture collection, but no more than 5 days later. The primary objective is to compare the Desirability of Outcomes Ranking (DOOR) distributions between patients with GN-BSI receiving IV antibiotic treatment only versus patients transitioned early to oral antibiotic treatment. The study hypothesis is that oral treatment will result in a more favorable DOOR distribution than IV treatment, likely as a result of differential adverse events and changes in Quality of Life (QoL) profiles.


Gram-negative Bacteremia, Antibiotic treatment, Antibiotic route, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR), Bacteremia, Sepsis, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antitubercular Antibiotics, Intravenous Antibiotics, Oral Antibiotics


You can join if…

Open to people ages 18 years and up

  • Adult (≥ 18 years) at the time of screening
  • Hospitalized
  • Identification of at least one Gram-negative organism in a blood culture
  • Capable of providing written informed consent (includes through a legally authorized representative)
  • Willingness to adhere to assigned study arm
  • Capable and willing to complete a follow-up QoL interview (including through a legally authorized representative)

You CAN'T join if...

  • Unable to tolerate or absorb a course of oral antibiotics
  • Actively receiving vasopressors
  • Gram-negative organism not susceptible to any oral antibiotics
  • Gram-negative organism not susceptible to any IV antibiotics
  • Polymicrobial bloodstream infection
    • The following patients with polymicrobial infections remain eligible for enrollment: (1) more than one morphology or species of a gram-negative organism (except for Acinetobacter baumannii or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia), (2) a single positive blood culture with a common commensal organism (grown in addition to an Enterobacterales species or Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Allergy or contraindication rendering no oral option or no IV option for therapy with the listed antibiotic agents.
  • Anticipated duration of therapy greater than 14 days
  • Central nervous system infection
  • Absolute neutrophil count of <500 cells/mL or anticipated to reduce to <500 cells/mL during the antibiotic treatment course.
  • Receiving hospice care


  • UCSF accepting new patients
    San Francisco California 94143 United States
  • Denver Health Hospital Authority accepting new patients
    Denver Colorado 80204 United States

Lead Scientist at UCSF

  • Sarah Doernberg, MD
    Sarah Doernberg is a Professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Medical Director of Adult Antimicrobial Stewardship at UCSF Medical Center. She has an active outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic and sees inpatients on the Transplant Infectious Diseases service. Her clinical research focuses on diagnosis and treatment of antibiotic resistant infections and antimicrobial stewardship.


accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
Johns Hopkins University
Study Type
Expecting 1204 study participants
Last Updated