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for males ages 18 years and up (full criteria)
at San Francisco, California and other locations
study started
estimated completion:



RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays and other types of radiation to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Androgens can cause the growth of prostate cancer cells. Androgen-deprivation therapy may lessen the amount of androgens made by the body. It is not yet known whether radiation therapy is more effective with or without androgen-deprivation therapy in treating patients with prostate cancer.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying radiation therapy to see how well it works compared with radiation therapy given together with androgen-deprivation therapy in treating patients with prostate cancer.

Official Title

A Phase III Prospective Randomized Trial of Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy With or Without Short-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer




  • Demonstrate an overall survival (OS) advantage in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT) with versus without short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).


  • Determine whether the addition of ADT to dose-escalated RT versus RT alone improves clinical failures, biochemical failure by the "nadir +2", freedom from failure, rate of salvage ADT, and prostate cancer-specific mortality in these patients.
  • Estimate the magnitude of benefit of ADT with respect to OS in patients treated with different RT modalities (i.e., external-beam radiation therapy alone vs low-dose rate brachytherapy boost vs high-dose rate brachytherapy boost).
  • Compare acute and late treatment adverse events of these regimens and correlate these events with the presence or absence of pre-existing comorbidity as documented by the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 assessment.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter, dose-escalation study of radiotherapy. Patients are stratified according to number of risk factors (1 vs 2-3), comorbidity (ACE-27 grade ≥ 2 vs < 2), and radiotherapy (RT) modality (dose-escalated external-beam RT [EBRT] vs EBRT and low-dose rate brachytherapy boost vs EBRT and high-dose rate brachytherapy boost). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

  • Arm I: Patients undergo EBRT once daily on days 1-5 for about 9 weeks (44 treatments). Some patients instead receive EBRT with high-dose rate or low-dose rate brachytherapy implant on days 1-5 for about 5 weeks (25 treatments). NOTE: Type of RT is at discretion of treating physician and may include either 3D-conformal RT or intensity-modulated RT.

  • Arm II: Patients receive androgen-deprivation therapy comprising luteinizing-hormone releasing-hormone (LHRH) agonist (leuprolide, goserelin, buserelin, or triptorelin) subcutaneously or as an injection every 1 to 3 months AND an oral antiandrogen therapy (flutamide 3 times daily or bicalutamide once daily) for 6 months. Beginning 8 weeks after the first LHRH injection, patients undergo radiotherapy as in arm I.

After completion of study therapy, patients are followed up periodically.


Prostate Cancer adenocarcinoma of the prostate stage IIB prostate cancer stage IIA prostate cancer Prostatic Neoplasms Androgens Leuprolide Buserelin Goserelin Triptorelin Pamoate Flutamide Bicalutamide


For males ages 18 years and up


  • Histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate diagnosed within the past 180 days and at intermediate-risk for recurrence by meeting 1 or more of the following criteria:
  • Gleason score = 7
  • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) > 10 and ≤ 20 ng/mL
  • Baseline serum PSA value performed within 60 days with an FDA-approved assay(e.g., Abbott, Hybritech)
  • Baseline PSA must not be obtained during any of the following time frames:10-day period after prostate biopsy, after initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy, or within the past 30 days after discontinuation of finasteride (90 days for dutasteride)
  • Clinical stage T2b or T2c disease
  • Patients previously diagnosed with low-risk (Gleason score < 6, clinical stage <T2a, and PSA < 10 ng/mL) prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance who are re-biopsied and found to have intermediate-risk disease according to the protocol criteria are eligible for enrollment within 6 months of the repeat biopsy procedure
  • Patients with Gleason Score ≥ 8, PSA > 20 ng/mL, OR clinical stage ≥ T3 are ineligible for this trial
  • If findings of extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle invasion are noted on prostate MRI, this study, if used, will not render patients ineligible for accrual to this protocol
  • Primary tumor staging for eligibility purposes is to be based on palpable or core biopsy evidence only with respect to extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle involvement
  • No patients with all 3 intermediate-risk factors who also have ≥ 50% of the number of their biopsy cores positive for cancer
  • The percentage of biopsy cores involved will only be considered with respect to eligibility for those patients with all 3 of the above risk factors (i.e.,patients with one or two of the above risk factors are eligible irrespective of the percentage of biopsy cores involved)
  • Clinically negative lymph nodes as established by imaging (pelvic and/or abdominal CT scan or MRI), nodal sampling, or dissection within the past 60 days (required for patients with 2-3 risk factors)
  • Abdominal imaging not required for a single intermediate-risk factor (these studies may be obtained at the discretion of the treating physician)
  • Lymph nodes that are equivocal or questionable by imaging allowed without biopsy if nodes ≤ 1.5 cm
  • Any node > 1.5 cm on imaging requires a negative biopsy
  • No evidence of bone metastases on bone scan within the past 60 days
  • Bone scan not required for patients with a single intermediate-risk factor (scan may be obtained at the discretion of the treating physician)
  • Equivocal bone scan findings allowed if plain film x-rays negative for metastasis


  • Zubrod performance status 0-1
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1,800/mm3*

  • Platelet count ≥ 100,000/mm3*

  • Hemoglobin ≥ 8.0 g/dL (transfusion or other intervention to achieve level allowed)*
  • NOTE: *For patients undergoing brachytherapy only.
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception during and for the 3 months after cessation of protocol treatment
  • No invasive malignancy or hematological malignancy (e.g., leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma)within the past 5 years except adequately treated non-melanomatous skin cancer
  • Prior diagnoses of carcinoma in situ allowed
  • No severe or active co-morbidity with any of the following:
  • Unstable angina and/or congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization within the past 6 months
  • Transmural myocardial infarction within the past 6 months
  • Acute bacterial or fungal infection requiring intravenous antibiotics
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation or other respiratory illness requiring hospitalization or precluding study therapy, within the past 30 days
  • Hepatic insufficiency resulting in clinical jaundice and/or coagulation defects
  • Laboratory tests for liver function and coagulation parameters not required for entry into this protocol
  • AIDS based upon current Centers for Disease Control (CDC) definition
  • HIV testing not required for entry into this protocol
  • HIV-seropositive patients who do not meet criteria for diagnosis of AIDS allowed


  • See Disease Characteristics
  • No prior radical surgery (prostatectomy), high-intensity focused ultrasound, or cryosurgery for prostate cancer
  • No prior hormonal therapy, such as LHRH agonists (e.g., goserelin, leuprolide),antiandrogens (e.g., flutamide, bicalutamide), estrogens (e.g., DES), or bilateral orchiectomy
  • No finasteride within past 30 days (90 days for dutasteride)
  • No prior or concurrent cytotoxic chemotherapy for prostate cancer
  • Prior chemotherapy for a different cancer allowed
  • No prior radiotherapy (RT), including brachytherapy, to the region of the study cancer that would result in overlap of RT fields
  • Patients undergoing brachytherapy must have transrectal ultrasound confirmation of prostate volume < 60 cc, American Urological Association (AUA) score ≤ 15 within the past 60 days of registration, and no history of prior transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
  • TURP allowed for patients who receive external-beam radiation therapy only


  • UCSF Medical Center-Mount Zion
    San Francisco, California, 94115, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-San Francisco
    San Francisco, California, 94115, United States
  • California Pacific Medical Center-Pacific Campus
    San Francisco, California, 94118, United States
  • Fresno Cancer Center
    Fresno, California, 93720, United States
  • Saint Agnes Medical Center
    Fresno, California, 93720, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente Cancer Treatment Center
    South San Francisco, California, 94080, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-South San Francisco
    South San Francisco, California, 94080, United States
  • Alta Bates Summit Medical Center-Herrick Campus
    Berkeley, California, 94704, United States
  • Marin General Hospital
    Greenbrae, California, 94904, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Richmond
    Richmond, California, 94801, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente Oakland-Broadway
    Oakland, California, 94611, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Oakland
    Oakland, California, 94611, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente San Leandro
    San Leandro, California, 94577, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-San Rafael
    San Rafael, California, 94903, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Redwood City
    Redwood City, California, 94063, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Walnut Creek
    Walnut Creek, California, 94596, United States
  • Stanford Cancer Institute
    Palo Alto, California, 94304, United States
  • Sutter Solano Medical Center/Cancer Center
    Vallejo, California, 94589, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente Medical Center - Santa Clara
    Santa Clara, California, 95051, United States
  • Rohnert Park Cancer Center
    Rohnert Park, California, 94928, United States
  • David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center
    Travis Air Force Base, California, 94535-1800, United States
  • Sutter Cancer Centers Radiation Oncology Services-Vacaville
    Vacaville, California, 95687, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Santa Teresa-San Jose
    San Jose, California, 95119, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Santa Rosa
    Santa Rosa, California, 95403, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Stockton
    Stockton, California, 95210, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-South Sacramento
    Sacramento, California, 95823, United States
  • South Sacramento Cancer Center
    Sacramento, California, 95823, United States
  • University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center
    Sacramento, California, 95817, United States
  • Sutter General Hospital
    Sacramento, California, 95816, United States
  • Mercy General Hospital Radiation Oncology Center
    Sacramento, California, 95819, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente - Sacramento
    Sacramento, California, 95825, United States
  • Memorial Medical Center
    Modesto, California, 95355, United States
  • Mercy San Juan Medical Center
    Carmichael, California, 95608, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Rancho Cordova Cancer Center
    Rancho Cordova, California, 95670, United States
  • The Permanente Medical Group-Roseville Radiation Oncology
    Roseville, California, 95678, United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-Roseville
    Roseville, California, 95661, United States
  • Sutter Cancer Centers Radiation Oncology Services-Roseville
    Roseville, California, 95661, United States
  • Sutter Cancer Centers Radiation Oncology Services-Cameron Park
    Cameron Park, California, 95682, United States
  • Sutter Cancer Centers Radiation Oncology Services-Auburn
    Auburn, California, 95603, United States
  • Enloe Medical Center
    Chico, California, 95926, United States
  • Feather River Cancer Center
    Paradise, California, 95969, United States
  • Tahoe Forest Cancer Center
    Truckee, California, 96161, United States
  • Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center/Disney Family Cancer Center
    Burbank, California, 91505, United States
  • Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center
    Los Angeles, California, 90033, United States
  • USC / Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center
    Los Angeles, California, 90033, United States
  • 21st Century Oncology - El Segundo
    El Segundo, California, 90245, United States
  • Pomona Valley Hospital Medical Center
    Pomona, California, 91767, United States
  • Veterans Administration Long Beach Medical Center
    Long Beach, California, 90822, United States
  • Desert Regional Medical Center
    Palm Springs, California, 92262, United States


in progress, not accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
Phase 3
Lead Scientist
I-Chow Hsu
Study Type
Last Updated
December 21, 2017