for people ages 18-65 (full criteria)
at San Francisco, California and other locations
study started
estimated completion
Principal Investigator
by Geoffrey Manley
Headshot of Geoffrey Manley
Geoffrey Manley



This study is being conducted to validate early and ultra-early blood-based and novel imaging biomarkers of Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI), Microvascular Injury (MVI), and neuroinflammation that may serve as predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in a new cohort of moderate-severe TRACK-TBI subjects. The study team will enroll a cohort of moderate to severe TBI subjects (N=50), stratified according to VA/DoD criteria for these injury severities through the existing TRACK-TBI network sites to obtain novel advanced neuroimaging and more frequent biomarker sampling. Subjects will be assessed over 3 months.

Official Title

TRACK-TBI Precision Medicine Phase 2-Option I


In 2009, the multicenter Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Consortium was implemented to characterize the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood-based biomarker features of TBI to inform design of next-generation precision medicine clinical trials in TBI. Over the past 10+ years, TRACK-TBI has been supported by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Energy (DoE), the National Football League, and other philanthropic and industry partners. TRACK-TBI has enrolled >3000 control and TBI subjects across the injury spectrum at 18 US Level 1 Trauma Centers. This effort has established the world's largest collection of TBI imaging studies and bio-specimens. The study results are already being adopted into clinical research and bedside practice. The TRACK-TBI Consortium is now primed to deliver on critical military and public health knowledge gaps and needs: objective classification of TBI based on what is termed as "mechanistic" endophenotypes, e.g., diffuse axonal injury (DAI), microvascular injury (MVI), and neuroinflammation. An endophenotype is an internal phenotype discoverable by biochemical, physiological, radiological, pathological, or other techniques, which is intermediate between a complex phenotype and the presumptive genetic or environmental contribution to a disease. Endophenotypes are quantitative, continuous variables, unlike a phenotype which is usually a binary, categorical variable. These mechanistic endophenotypes, defined by imaging and blood-based biomarkers, will direct targeted treatments based on mechanism, providing the tools needed for successful execution of precision medicine clinical trials. To achieve the goal of precision medicine in TBI, it is necessary to identify subgroups of TBI patients that will respond to a targeted therapy. Investigators will assess putative blood-based and neuroimaging biomarkers for DAI, MVI, and neuroinflammation. Fluid biomarkers complement imaging markers and may provide important tools for precision medicine clinical trials. Investigators will collect acute data (early and ultra-early i.e., hours-days following injury), to validate the utility of these biomarkers in defining TBI mechanistic endophenotypes for use in clinical trials. Specific Aim for TRACK-TBI Precision Medicine Phase 2-Option 1: To validate early and ultra-early blood based and novel imaging biomarkers of DAI, MVI, and neuroinflammation that may serve as predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in a cohort of moderate-severe subjects.


Traumatic Brain Injury, Biomarkers, Neuroimaging, Psychological Health, Concussion, Brain Injuries, Brain Injuries, Traumatic


You can join if…

Open to people ages 18-65

  • Age 18 - 65y inclusive
  • History or evidence of TBI, according to DoD-VA criteria
  • Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 3 - 15 after resuscitation in the ED
  • Head CT with evidence of trauma-related abnormality (except for isolated epidural hematoma (EDH))
  • Ability to undergo MRI within 48 hours of injury
  • Ability to obtain informed consent from participant or Legally Authorized Representative (LAR) within 6 hours of injury
  • Fluency in English or Spanish

You CAN'T join if...

  • Unstable respiratory or hemodynamic status
  • Evidence of penetrating brain injury
  • Isolated EDH as only trauma-related CT abnormality
  • Systemic traumatic injury that would preclude participation in study, which is expected to result in long-term disability not related to TBI
  • Evidence of serious infectious complications (sepsis, bacteremia, multilobar pneumonia)
  • Acute ischemic heart disease (myocardial infarction or unstable angina)
  • History of syncope or hypotension
  • Systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mm Hg, Diastolic blood pressure (DBP)< 40 mm Hg for longer than 5 minutes
  • History or evidence of active malignancy
  • History of pre-existing neurologic disorder, such as dementia, mild cognitive impairment, uncontrolled epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain tumors, prior severe TBI, or other disorder that may confound interpretation of MRI or neuropsychological results
  • History of pre-existing disabling mental illness, such as major depression or schizophrenia
  • History or evidence of chronic heart failure or chronic renal failure
  • Low likelihood of follow-up (e.g., participant or family indicating low interest, residence in another state or country, unhoused or lack of reliable contacts)
  • Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding
  • Prisoners or patients in custody
  • Patients on psychiatric hold (e.g. 5150, 5250)


  • University of California, San Francisco
    San Francisco California 94110 United States
  • University of Utah
    Salt Lake City Utah 84132 United States

Lead Scientist at UCSF

  • Geoffrey Manley
    Dr. Manley is Chief of Neurosurgery at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Professor and Vice Chairman of Neurological Surgery at UCSF. He is a trauma neurosurgeon and Co-Director of the Brain and Spinal Injury Center. Dr. Manley's research interests range from molecular aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the clinical care of TBI victims.


accepting new patients by invitation only
Start Date
Completion Date
University of California, San Francisco
Access to FITBIR data will be according to FITBIR policies.
Study Type
Expecting 50 study participants
Last Updated