Summary

for people ages 18 years and up (full criteria)
at San Francisco, California and other locations
study started
estimated completion
Chia-Ching (Jackie) Wang

Description

Summary

This randomized phase II clinical trial studies how well nivolumab after combined modality therapy works in treating patients with high risk stage II-IIIB anal cancer. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread.

Official Title

A Randomized Phase II Study of Nivolumab After Combined Modality Therapy (CMT) in High Risk Anal Cancer

Details

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

  1. To evaluate whether therapy with nivolumab following combined modality therapy (CMT) improves disease-free survival (DFS) compared with observation in patients with high risk anal carcinoma.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

  1. To compare nivolumab following combined modality therapy (CMT) with observation in patients with high risk anal carcinoma with regard to:

Ia. Objective response rate (complete [CR] and partial [PR]), stable disease and progression.

Ib. Severe toxicity interval. Ic. Colostomy-free survival. Id. Overall survival. Ie. Toxicity.

OUTLINE: Patients who received standard CMT are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

ARM A: Patients receive nivolumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM B: Patients undergo observation for up to 6 months.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 6 weeks, every 3 months for 2 years, and then every 6 months for 3 years.

Keywords

Anal Basaloid Carcinoma Anal Canal Cloacogenic Carcinoma Anal Margin Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IIB Anal Cancer AJCC v8 Stage IIIA Anal Cancer AJCC v8 Stage IIIB Anal Cancer AJCC v8 Stage IIIC Anal Cancer AJCC v8 Carcinoma Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Anus Neoplasms Nivolumab Patient Observation

Eligibility

For people ages 18 years and up

Inclusion Criteria:

  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 1 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
  • Patients must have histologically proven stage IIB (T3N0M0 only), IIIA (T2N1M0), IIIB (T4N0M0), or IIIC (T3N1M0, T4N1M0) invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anus or anorectum, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition; this may include tumors of non-keratinizing histology such as basaloid, transitional cell, or cloacogenic histology; individuals with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin are eligible if there is evidence of extension of the primary tumor into the anal canal
  • For patients registering to Arm T, patients must not have received prior chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer
  • Patients must have Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2
  • Patients must have hemoglobin levels of > 10g/dL (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • Patient must have a platelet count of > 100,000/mm3 (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

  • Patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC) level must be > 1500/mm3 (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

  • Serum creatinine must be =< 1.5 X upper limit of normal (ULN) (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • Total bilirubin must be < 2 X ULN (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT])/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • Albumin >= 3.0 g/dL (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • Patients known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ are permitted; patients with

CD4 > 200 and serum HIV viral load of < 200 copies/mm3 are eligible, and in addition:

  • Participants must be purified protein derivative (PPD) negative; alternatively, the QuantiFERON-tuberculosis (TB) Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay (Cellestis Limited, Carnegie, Australia) can be used; an individual is considered positive for M. tuberculosis infection if the IFN-gamma response to TB antigens is above the test cut-off (after subtracting the background IFN-gamma response in the negative control); the result must be obtained within 20 weeks prior to enrollment; PPD positive (or Quantiferon assay positive) participants are permitted if prophylaxis has been completed prior to enrollment
  • No history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complications within past year other than a history of low CD4+ T-cell count (> 200/mm3) prior to initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy; on study CD4+ T-cell count may not be informative due to chemoradiotherapy and should not be used as an exclusion criterion if low

  • Patient must be healthy on the basis of HIV disease with high likelihood of near normal life span were it not for the anal cancer
  • Participants MUST receive appropriate care and treatment for HIV infection, including antiretroviral medications when clinically indicated, and should be under the care of a physician experienced in HIV management; participants will be eligible regardless of antiretroviral medication (including no antiretroviral medication) provided there is no intention to initiate therapy or the regimen has been stable for at least 4 weeks with no intention to change the regimen within 12 weeks following enrollment
  • Patient must have =< grade 2 diarrhea (participants with grade 1 diarrhea are eligible provided stool for ova/parasites and stool cryptosporidium studies are negative;
  • NOTE: HIV testing is not required for eligibility
  • For patients registering prior to start of chemoradiotherapy, baseline scans must have been completed within 4 weeks prior to registration
  • Patients with an allogenic bone marrow/stem, cell or solid organ transplant are excluded
  • Women of child-bearing potential must use an accepted and effective method of contraception and/or abstain from sexual intercourse while on protocol treatment and for at least 5 months after the last dose of nivolumab; sexually active males must use an accepted and effective method of contraception and/or abstain from sexual intercourse while on protocol treatment and for at least 7 months after the last dose of nivolumab
  • Women must not be pregnant or breast-feeding because the study drugs administered may cause harm to an unborn fetus or breastfeeding child; the effects of nivolumab on a developing fetus are unknown and may cause harm; all females of childbearing potential must have a serum or urine pregnancy test to rule out pregnancy within 2 weeks prior to registration
  • Pregnant women are excluded from this study because the study agents have the potential for teratogenic or abortifacient effects; because there is an unknown but potential risk of adverse events in nursing infants secondary to treatment of the mother with the study agents, breastfeeding should be discontinued
  • Patients will be excluded if they have a T1 or M1, and T2N0 cancer
  • Patients must not have had prior potentially curative surgery (abdominal, peritoneal resection) for carcinoma of the anus
  • Participants may not be receiving any other standard anti-cancer therapy or experimental agent concurrently with the study drugs
  • Any surgery must have been completed >= 4 weeks prior to starting study treatment
  • No uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  • Individuals with a history of a different malignancy are ineligible except if they have been disease-free for at least 2 years and are deemed by the investigator to be at low risk for recurrence; individuals with the following cancers are eligible if diagnosed and treated within the past 5 years: cervical cancer in situ, and basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
  • Patient must not have active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years
  • NOTE: This does not include patients with controlled hypothyroidism
  • No prior treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor (anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody)
  • No patients with immunodeficiency or receiving systemic steroid therapy equivalent to > 10 mg prednisone per day or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of study medication; topical corticosteroid or occasional inhaled corticosteroids are allowed
  • No live vaccines within 30 days prior to registration; examples of live vaccines include, but are not limited to, the following: measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, yellow fever, rabies, BCG, and typhoid (oral) vaccine; seasonal influenza vaccines for injection are generally killed virus vaccines and are allowed; however, intranasal influenza vaccines (e.g., Flu-Mist) are live attenuated vaccines and are not allowed;

NOTE: no live vaccines may be administered while participating in the trial

  • Patients must not have known interstitial lung disease that is symptomatic or may interfere with the detection or management of suspected drug-related pulmonary toxicity
  • Previously irradiated patients (Arm S) must have received radiation per National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines; radiation therapy delivered on protocol (Arm T) will be reviewed
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients will be registered within 63 days following completion of standard chemoradiation for anal cancer; standard chemoradiation therapy is as defined
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients must have histologically proven stage IIB (T3N0M0 only), IIIA (T2N1M0), IIIB (T4N0M0), or IIIC (T3N1M0, T4N1M0) invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anus or anorectum, according to the AJCC 8th edition; this may include tumors of non-keratinizing histology such as basaloid, transitional cell, or cloacogenic histology; individuals with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin are eligible if there is evidence of extension of the primary tumor into the anal canal
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients must have received at least 54 gray (Gy) of radiation to the PTVp (primary) and 45 Gy to PTVn (elective nodal region) for the treatment of the anal cancer
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients must have ECOG performance status of 0-2
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients must have hemoglobin levels of > 10g/dL (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patient must have a platelet count of > 100,000/mm3 (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patient's ANC level must be > 1500/mm3 (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Serum creatinine must be =< 1.5 X ULN (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Total bilirubin must be < 2 X ULN (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: AST (SGOT)/ALT (SGPT) =< 2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Albumin >= 3.0 g/dL (within 2 weeks prior to registration)
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ patients with CD4 > 200 and serum HIV viral load of < 200 copies/mm3 are eligible; in addition:

  • Participants must be PPD negative; alternatively, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay (Cellestis Limited, Carnegie, Australia) can be used; an individual is considered positive for M. tuberculosis infection if the IFN-gamma response to TB antigens is above the test cut-off (after subtracting the background IFN-gamma response in the negative control); the result must be obtained within 20 weeks prior to enrollment; PPD positive (or Quantiferon assay positive) participants are permitted if prophylaxis has been completed prior to enrollment; NOTE: If patient completed chemoradiation on Step 1, PPD testing does not need to be performed again
  • No history of AIDS-related complications within past year other than a history of low CD4+ T-cell count (> 200/mm3) prior to initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy; on study CD4+ T-cell count may not be informative due to chemoradiotherapy should not be used as an exclusion criterion if low

  • Patient must be healthy on the basis of HIV disease with high likelihood of near normal life span were it not for the anal cancer
  • Participants MUST receive appropriate care and treatment for HIV infection, including antiretroviral medications when clinically indicated, and should be under the care of a physician experienced in HIV management; participants will be eligible regardless of antiretroviral medication (including no antiretroviral medication) provided there is no intention to initiate therapy or the regimen has been stable for at least 4 weeks with no intention to change the regimen within 12 weeks following enrollment
  • Patient must have =< grade 2 diarrhea (participants with grade 1 diarrhea are eligible provided stool for ova/parasites and stool cryptosporidium studies are negative)
  • NOTE: HIV testing is not required for eligibility
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Scans done within 4 weeks of randomization to Step 2
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patient must have recovered from all toxicities associated with chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer, to grade =< 1 with the exception of alopecia
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients with an allogenic bone marrow/stem, cell or solid organ transplant are excluded
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Women of child-bearing potential must use an accepted and effective method of contraception and/or abstain from sexual intercourse while on protocol treatment and for at least 5 months after the last dose of nivolumab; sexually active males must use an accepted and effective method of contraception and/or abstain from sexual intercourse while on protocol treatment and for at least 7 months after the last dose of nivolumab
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Women must not be pregnant or breast-feeding because the study drugs administered may cause harm to an unborn fetus or breastfeeding child; the effects of nivolumab on a developing fetus are unknown and may cause harm; all females of childbearing potential must have a serum or urine pregnancy test to rule out pregnancy within 2 weeks prior to registration
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Pregnant women are excluded from this study because the study agents have the potential for teratogenic or abortifacient effects; because there is an unknown but potential risk of adverse events in nursing infants secondary to treatment of the mother with the study agents, breastfeeding should be discontinued
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients must not have had prior potentially curative surgery (abdominal, peritoneal resection) for carcinoma of the anus
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Participants may not be receiving any other standard anti-cancer therapy or experimental agent concurrently with the study drugs
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: No uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Individuals with a history of a different malignancy are ineligible except if they have been disease-free for at least 2 years and are deemed by the investigator to be at low risk for recurrence; individuals with the following cancers are eligible if diagnosed and treated within the past 5 years: cervical cancer in situ, and basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patient must not have active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in past 2 years
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: No prior treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor (anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody)
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: No patients with immunodeficiency or receiving systemic steroid therapy equivalent to > 10 mg prednisone per day or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of study medication; topical corticosteroid or occasional inhaled corticosteroids are allowed
  • REGISTRATION TO STEP 2 ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: No live vaccines within 3

Locations

  • Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital accepting new patients
    San Francisco California 94110 United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-San Francisco accepting new patients
    San Francisco California 94115 United States
  • Community Cancer Institute accepting new patients
    Clovis California 93611 United States
  • University Oncology Associates accepting new patients
    Clovis California 93611 United States
  • Kaiser Permanente Cancer Treatment Center accepting new patients
    South San Francisco California 94080 United States
  • Kaiser Permanente-South San Francisco accepting new patients
    South San Francisco California 94080 United States
  • Fresno Cancer Center accepting new patients
    Fresno California 93720 United States

Lead Scientist

Details

Status
accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
(estimated)
Sponsor
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ID
NCT03233711
Phase
Phase 2
Study Type
Interventional
Last Updated